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    The DISTILLATE Glossary of some of the terms used in transport and land use planning (Mar 2008) (PDF - 50KB)

    Project B - Option Generation

    Product B1: A KonSULT-based strategy option generator

    KonSULT (www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk) is a knowledgebase which provides an assessment of the potential contribution to policy of some 40 transport and land use policy instruments, based on both a first principles assessment and a review of case studies. The option generator will enable users to interrogate KonSULT to identify the subset of instruments which are likely to be most useful in a specified context. The aim is to broaden the range of policy instruments which are considered, rather than to dictate a particular approach. Users will be able to focus on their objectives, problems or performance indicators, specify their relative importance, indicate the overall strategy which they wish to pursue and identify the context in which they are working. The option generator will then use the assessment scores for each instrument in KonSULT to identify those instruments which are likely to contribute most.

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    A KonSULT-based strategy option generator by Kelly C, May A, Jopson A and Gawthorpe S, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds and Cook A and Tanner G Transport Studies Group, University of Westminster (Mar 2008) (PDF - 731KB)

    Product B2: An "outside the box" accessibility strategy planning tool

    While Accessibility Planning is now an integral part of the Local Transport Plan process, the solutions that are proposed are usually heavily focused on public transport improvements. The suite of tools being developed here is designed to encourage a much broader range of potential solutions, both transport and non-transport-based, and to consider accessibility from the viewpoint of the consumer rather than the supplier. This includes detailed consideration of both local access on foot (to shops, GP surgeries, bus stops, etc.) and sub-regional accessibility to services by public transport. It starts with problem framing and diagnosis, and also takes into account typical combinations of activities rather than just access to individual service types. The suite comprises both structured and unstructured 'outside the box' tools, for use by local residents and professional groups, which are both paper-based and GIS computer-based.

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Identifying the Accessibility Problems of Disadvantaged Groups & Generating Solutions - Application to the Barnsley Dearne Area of South Yorkshire by Jones P and Paskins J Centre for Transport Studies, UCL (March 2008) (PDF - 2.59MB)

    Product B3: A hands-on road space reallocation option generator designed for public involvement

    Roadspace reallocation exercises in urban areas are often very contentious, particularly along sections such as local high streets, where there are many competing demands for roadspace. This tool is designed to be used by local stakeholder groups, to help them develop alternative designs that can meet their varying requirements, while at the same time satisfying basic traffic management requirements.

    In Stage 1, groups of participants are provided with scale plans showing the section of street to be redesigned, marked up with any core constraints (e.g. no parking at road junctions). They are also provided with sets of acetates and blocks to scale, showing different ways in which space might be allocated, which they can use to decide on their preferred space allocation within the constraints set by the width of the highway. In Stage 2, the different schemes are shown in GIS format, for collective discussion and adjustment.

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Engaging Stakeholders in the Redesign of Bloxwich High Street - Developing Techniques for Streetspace Reallocation by Peter Jones and Roselle Thoreau, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL (Dec 2007) (PDF - 1.5MB)

    Product B4: A toolkit for qualitative generation of scheme options to help disadvantaged and hard-to-reach users

    The aim of this toolkit is to provide option generation tools specifically targeted at the inclusion of disadvantaged and hard-to-reach groups. It will investigate not only their options for physical infrastructure improvements but also their perceptions of how the public space is used to best advantage to allow access. The case study will focus in particular on options put forward by schoolchildren, mothers with children, older residents of single occupancy homes, and the disabled in Bispham Village, Blackpool.

    The toolkit will be an example of an unconstrained approach, since initial public participants will be able to suggest any solutions that make sense to them, and will provide a set of procedures for option generation in these circumstances. These suggestions will then be used to provoke professional and citizen groups to think more laterally about design solutions. The toolkit will be based on GIS for Participation (GIS-P), and will indicate how and when to use GIS-P for these purposes. It will be of particular value to local authority officers and others who wish to consult "hard to reach" groups.

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Rapid Appraisal Participatory Geographic Information System (RAP-GIS) for ‘Out-of-the-Box’ Transport Option Generation with ‘Hard-to-Reach-Groups’ by Steve Cinderby, SEI-Y (April 2008) (PDF - 1.5MB)

    Guidance to users:

    Rapid Appraisal Participatory Geographic Information System (RAP-GIS) for ‘Out-of-the-Box’ Transport Option Generation, suitable for use with ‘Hard-to-Reach-Groups’ (April 2008) (PDF - 542KB)

    Project C - Indicators

    Product C1: Designing a monitoring strategy to support effective delivery of sustainable transport goals

    There are too many issues in transport that could be measured and often incoherent approaches to monitoring across all local government services. This product provides a method for selecting and prioritising which indicators to measure for which purposes. The product would primarily be used by practitioners to decide how to develop a monitoring strategy that supports their objectives, allows them to assess the on-going implementation success and to communicate this to the public and elected members.

    Report on research:

    This is DISTILLATE Deliverable C1: Sustainable Transport Indicators: Selection and Use by Greg Marsden and Charlotte Kelly, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds and Carolyn Snell and John Forrester, SEI, University of York (Dec 2005) Go to Project C Deliverables


    Designing a monitoring strategy to support sustainable transport goals (Feb 2008) (PDF - 900KB)

    Product C2: Advice on selecting indicators for sustainable transport

    New indicators are often introduced but lack many of the properties of a good indicator which lead to a loss of credibility, retrenching or withdrawal. Such experiments can be costly both financially and politically. This product describes the properties of a good indicator and provides case study examples to demonstrate how the approach can be used.

    Report on research:

    This is DISTILLATE Deliverable C2: Measuring wider economic benefits of transport: A case study in good practice for indicator selection by Greg Marsden and Sotirios Thanos, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds (Mar 2008) Go to Project C Deliverables


    Advice on selecting indicators for sustainable transport (Mar 2008) (PDF - 4.7MB)

    Product C3: Monitoring across sectors and spatial levels for sustainable transport: a good practice guide

    This product addresses the problem of how to decide what to monitor and how to ensure that transport impacts are well integrated into corporate monitoring frameworks. It takes into account weak integration between the transport and land-use planning sectors and the lack of co-ordination between monitoring strategies at different spatial scales. This product takes the form of a guide which summarises the key findings of four practice based case studies. It covers monitoring across government layers and looks at what makes for effective and ineffective communication across government tiers. It also covers monitoring across policy sectors looks at the issues surrounding integrating transport into a more complex policy environment such as Local Area Agreements. The product is intended for local, regional and national organisations and it is recommendation led. It could be used as a checklist for good practice.

    Report on research:

    This is DISTILLATE Deliverable C3: Improving Monitoring and Reporting for Local Authorities: Lessons from the Transport Sector by Greg Marsden and Mary Kimble, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Angela Hull and Reginald Tricker, University of West of England, Karen Lucas and Michael Brookes, Transport Studies Group, University of Westminster and Carolyn Snell and John Forrester, SEI, University of York (Mar 2008) Go to Project C Deliverables


    Monitoring across sectors and spatial levels for sustainable transport: A good practice guide (Feb 2008) (PDF - 300KB)

    Project D - Organisational Effectiveness

    Product D1: A guidebook on ways of overcoming structural and process barriers

    Project D is contributing to a number of the products of other projects, including B4, C3, and G2. In addition it will write up examples of good practice from its case studies. The resolution of case study partners' problems, their own good practice, and examples of others' good practice collected from the literature will be used to identify and evaluate a list of measures to help overcome the structural and process barriers which hinder the delivery of sustainable transport solutions. This list will be presented and tested at a workshop at the 2007 transport practitioners' conference. The resulting output will be a Guidebook on better organisational and working practices which may help local authority officers to overcome organisational and institutional barriers to the delivery of more sustainable transport systems.

    Report on research:

    DISTILLATE Product D1 (Guide to Partnership Working) Research Report by J Forrester, SEI-Y (April 2008) (PDF - 201KB)


    The DISTILLATE Guide to Crosssectoral and Intra-organisational Partnership Working for Sustainable Transport Decision Making (March 2008) (PDF - 412KB)

    Product D2: Guidance on ways of overcoming barriers using DISTILLATE outputs

    D2 will be a tool to guide transport practitioners through the outputs of the DISTILLATE products. D2 will focus on providing a guide to the 'where & when' to use of DISTILLATE outputs such as the Option Generation toolkits, Indicator sets, Funding toolkit, Models and Appraisal tools. It will pick up on the 'DISTILLATE policy cycle' (Inception Report) and link this to the Project D policy cycle analysis. The where, when, and how to use the DISTILLATE tools, products and outputs varies according to context and D2 will indicate at what stage in policy cycles it is possible to target the right tool or set of tools (e.g. indicators or modeled data) at the right stakeholders to have the required outcome. D2 will indicate a series of case studies showing how these principles have successfully been put into practice by some of our DISTILLATE partners.

    Report on research:

    DISTILLATE Product D2 “online guidance to using DISTILLATE tools” Research Report by J Forrester, SEI-Y (April 2008) (PDF - 547KB)

    Link to the tool itself (forthcoming)

    Project E - Funding

    Report on research (covers all three products):

    Improved Mechanisms for Funding of Local Transport: DISTILLATE Funding Project Research Report by C Brannigan, A Binsted and N Paulley, TRL (April 2008) (PDF - 711KB)

    Product E1: Funding toolkit for decision makers

    The aim of the Funding Toolkit is to provide decision-makers with an overview of potentially available funding sources to use for a variety of schemes and projects. Local authorities often face barriers when identifying or applying for funding, and this toolkit will help them in both identifying alternative sources of funding, and highlighting the potential barriers at an early stage. The Toolkit will provide advice on using various sources of funding, including private sector, other central, regional or local government initiatives, initiatives of governmental organisations or bodies, and the voluntary/charitable sector. The Toolkit will provide descriptions of existing sources, the types of schemes that they can be used for, case study examples of the funding sources used in practice, and the potential benefits and disadvantages of using the source. Advice on partnership working will also be provided (through links with Project D).


    Local Transport Funding Toolkit for Local Authorities (Apr 2008) (PDF - 1.3MB)

    Product E2: Guidance to funding agencies

    Unlike the Funding Toolkit, which is aimed at local authorities addressing funding barriers that they may face, this guidance will be for the potential funders of transport and land use schemes and projects (including DfT) and will identify and examine the funding barriers faced by local authorities and the potential implications these may have, on both the organisations and the resultant schemes. Where appropriate, recommendations on improvements to funding mechanisms will be made. The guidance note will be based on the barriers work undertaken in Projects A and D, Project E case study and toolkit research, and discussions with local authorities during the Project E Funding workshop.


    Local Transport Funding Guidance for Funders of Transport Schemes (Mar 2008) (PDF - 91KB)

    Product E3: An assessment of the implications of funding restraints

    This product will build upon the two earlier products (E1 and E2), examining the implications of various funding restraints/barriers. In some cases, the funding source itself can distort the planned scheme – this may be in terms of objectives the scheme is trying to meet being altered to obtain funding from a particular source. These distortions within funding streams will be identified, and their implications for schemes/projects discussed in the note. Recommendations will be provided on how these distortions may be dealt with/addressed.


    Local Transport Funding: An Assessment of the Implications of Funding Restraints (Mar 2008) (PDF - 98KB)

    Project F - Modelling

    Product F1: The MARS flight simulator and optimisation tool

    MARS is a strategic land use - transport interaction model capable of analysing policy combinations at the metropolitan level and assessing their impacts over a 30 year planning period in less than one minute. The model has been transferred to a system dynamics platform VENSIM which provides a transparent approach to model development. The flight simulator approach will allow users to change policies and view outputs in a simulation environment with easy to use "slider bars". Outputs will be presented in graphical and tabular format with a new link to animated mapping software (Animap). In addition the user will be able to use the VENSIM optimisation facility to optimise a package of policy instruments against a given set of objectives or targets. This will enable the planner to look at the impacts of target setting and to identify potential trajectories. Apart from developing the user interface, the model will also be enhanced to address weaknesses in the modelling of certain policy instruments. These include modelling of quality factors and over-crowding for public transport, and representing car parking capacity and off-peak congestion.

    Paper on development and testing of tool:

    Pfaffenbichler P, Emberger G and Shepherd S P (2008) The integrated dynamic land use and transport model MARS Networks and Spatial Economics, Online First: January

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Product F2: Improved methods for demand restraint analysis

    The SATURN model will be used to aid the design of cordon pricing schemes. A short-cut approach based on select link analysis will be tested with our own models and with others such as Cambridge (currently being negotiated). This theme has been introduced into DISTILLATE in response to a need identified with DfT and TIF authorities. Other studies using SATURN will include the representation of car park capacity, so that car park occupancy affects choice of car park when modelled using multiple time periods. This complements the approach adopted in the MARS model in product F1. Finally a methodology for improved modelling of area based charging rather than trip based cordon charges will be investigated. Current models generally implement a cost per trip for those crossing a cordon whereas area based schemes should also charge those within the cordon and allow for trip-chaining.

    F2a Cordon design

    Paper on development and testing of tool:

    Shepherd S P, May A D and Koh A (2007) How to design effective road pricing cordons Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    F2b Parking model

    Paper on development and testing of tool:

    Balijepalli N C, Shepherd S P and May A D (2008) Modelling the Choice of Car Parks in Urban Areas and Managing the Demand for Parking Paper presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 13th-17th January

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    F2c Area based charging

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Comparing benefits between cordon and area-based road pricing schemes and optimising the benefits by N C Balijepalli, S P Shepherd and A D May, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds (Apr 2008) (PDF - 104KB)

    Product F3: Improved methods for modelling public transport

    The Strategic Transport Model (STM) is a multimodal transport model used to assess a range of public transport and private car-related transport policies under different land-use planning scenarios. The model, as developed for Strathclyde, has been extended to incorporate higher spatial resolution. There are two main outputs from this case study related to modelling trip chaining and allocation of land use developments. The first output will include innovative demand modelling features to represent the interchange between car, rail and underground. The second aims to develop an impact assessment tool at the strategic level for use within STM for different land-use scenarios. It will develop diagnostic tools to identify and explain the impacts of land use strategies on performance of the transport system. Demand forecasts for improvements in bus quality and Bus Rapid Transit schemes will be reviewed and a stated preference analysis covering novel features of public transport provision will provide new evidence and model parameters which can be applied in any future demand forecasting models. Finally, the micro-simulation model DRACULA will be enhanced to represent public transport users' route choice strategies. Although theoretical in nature the resulting model will be of direct interest to fleet and network managers. Advice will be offered on the transfer of methodologies to other models.

    F3a Bus reliability modelling

    Paper on development and testing of tool:

    Liu R and Sinha S (2007) Modelling Urban Bus Service and Passenger Reliability Paper presented to INSTR2007 - The Third International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability, 19-20 July, The Netherlands

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    F3b Mode chain modelling in strategic transport models

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Mode Chain Modelling in TRL’s Strategic Transport Model by Andrew Ash, TRL (April 2008) (PDF - 1.01MB)

    F3c Interpretation of outputs from strategic transport models

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Design of a scenario interpreter in TRL's Strategic Transport Model by Andrew Ash, TRL (April 2008) (PDF - 785KB)

    Project G - Appraisal

    Product G1: A method for initial outline appraisal of schemes and strategies (discontinued)

    One of the problems that local authorities encounter when using traditional appraisal methodologies is that they require a large amount of data and effort and therefore tend to take place at the end of an extended period of project development. It is therefore difficult for the results from appraisal to be taken into account in decision making and scheme design at an early stage. Similar problems arise in the early stages of appraising an overall strategy. This output was to have been a method for conducting an outline appraisal at an earlier stage in the development of a project. It was to have been based on NATA with results which were (as far as possible) comparable, but with less onerous data requirements and requiring less time to perform. As the project developed it was realised that Product G1 would have been a very significant undertaking. Additionally it would not have overcome the barrier perceived by local authorities - the possible conflict between the outcome of a formal appraisal (based on the UK national appraisal method, NATA) and the policy direction that the local authority wanted to pursue. This issue is, however, felt to be important and it is covered under G4 below.

    Product G2: Small and Local Scheme Assessment

    The final product will take the form of an assessment matrix which allows users to select a set of indicators appropriate to their circumstances, weight the indicators in terms of importance, assess the impact of proposed project(s) against the indicators, and finally combine the weighting and assessment to derive a final score that will give an indication of whether a project is worth pursuing, or a priority list where more than one project is assessed. Packages of measures could also be assessed. A pick list of potential indicators will be provided derived from NATA, LTP guidance, Best Value indicators and other appropriate sources. Users will also be able to add their own local indicators - these may reflect specific local issues in the LTP or even regional strategies. Indicators are likely to be weighted in line with the LTP, but different priorities can be set if appropriate. Guidance on selecting indicators, weighting and assessing the impact of projects will be provided to accompany the matrix. Likely users include local authority decision makers, although the matrix could also be used as part of the consultation processes with stakeholders. In the first instance the matrix is designed to support the decision making process for small schemes, but it is also intended that it could be used with larger schemes to provide an initial indication of whether they are worth pursuing to the full appraisal stage.

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Small & Local Scheme Assessment Tool: Tool and Method Report by Charlotte Kelly, Ann Jopson and Batool Menaz, Institute for Transport Studies, University of  Leeds and John Forrester, Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York (Mar 2008) (PDF - 660KB)

    Product G3: Tools for representing and appraising the distributional impacts of policies

    While DfT and Treasury guidance both stress the need to take into account distributional issues in project appraisal, there is little detailed information or experience on how this might be achieved in practice. The project is addressing these issues at different spatial scales. First, there is an international review of literature relating to social inclusion and distributional impacts at a strategic level (including work on road user charging). Second, case studies are being carried out in Barnsley Dearne (covering accessibility planning, at the meso level) and in the West Midlands (looking at roadspace reallocation at a local level). The tools that are being developed will illustrate: (i) how to identify the relevant stakeholder groups in different contexts, (ii) how to measure current conditions and the likely impacts of policy measures on different groups, and (iii) how the subsequent appraisal might take into account the differing circumstances and concerns of these different groups.

    G3a For strategies

    Reports on development and testing of tools:

    Distributional Impacts of Sector Strategies and Schemes - Development of a Spreadsheet Tool to Assist in Identifying Cross-Sector Impacts by Peter Jones and James Paskins, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL (May 2008) (PDF - 347KB)

    Real-time Assessment of the Distributional Impact of Accessibility Schemes in the Dearne Area of South Yorkshire by Steve Cinderby, Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York (May 2008) (PDF - 3.4MB)

    G3b For schemes

    Report on development and testing of tool:

    Distributional Impacts of Transport Schemes: Winners and Losers of Streetspace Allocation Exercises Case Study: Bloxwich High Street, West Midlands by Peter Jones and James Paskins, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL (Mar 2008) (PDF - 2.6MB)

    Product G4: A review of ways of overcoming the inconsistencies between targets and appraisal

    One of the barriers identified by local authorities was the potential for inconsistencies between the transport policies to which they aspire, those which appear best to satisfy externally driven targets, and those which perform best in terms of NATA or of a value for money assessment. This product consists of a discussion of this issue and case studies of where this has occurred. These inconsistencies could potentially be resolved by aligning the indicators used, their relative weights and the target values with the criteria used in appraisal, or by setting targets to be consistent with the outcome of strategy appraisal. The aim of the product is to help local authorities to increase the consistency and transparency with which decision making is carried out. An early version of this guidance note was submitted to the Department for Transport as part of the consultation on the NATA refresh carried out October 07 to March 08 (link to NATA refresh information on DfT website).


    Addressing the inconsistencies in appraisal practice (June 2008) (PDF - 234KB)

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