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    General DISTILLATE

    May A D, Page M and Hull A (2007) Decision support tools for sustainable urban transport Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - There is now an increased understanding of the need to design urban transport and land use systems to be more sustainable, and of the policies which are needed to achieve this. However, work by the European Conference of Ministers of Transport has highlighted the institutional, acceptability, financial, information, regulatory and process barriers to implementing them. These barriers are evident in England, even though it has a particularly developed approach to local transport planning. As a contribution to overcoming them, a four year research programme is underway which is developing decision-support tools for local government. The paper describes the international background to this research programme, its objectives and overall structure and its interaction with local authorities. The barriers to sustainability identified by the programme's local authority partners are presented, and the planned products from the research programme outlined.

    May A D (2009) Achieving sustainable urban transport Journeys 1 (invited paper) Singapore, Land Transport Authority

    May A D (2009) Sustainable urban transport policy: facilitating effective decision-making Proc CODATU XIII, Ho Chi Minh City (invited keynote paper)

    May A D, Page M and Hull A (2008) Developing a set of decision-support tools for sustainable urban transport in the UK Transport Policy, Volume 15, Number 6, pp328-340

    May A D (2009) Enabling cities to develop more sustainable transport strategies European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project A - Behaviour and Barriers

    Hull A D (2004) Sustainable Transport in the Metropolis: Exploring the Need for New Approaches paper presented to the AESOP conference Metropolitan Planning and Environmental Issues, 1-4 July 2004, Grenoble, France

    Hull A D and Tricker R (2005) Sustainable urban environments: Assessing the barriers to sustainable transport Engineering Sustainability, 158, pp. 171-180

    Abstract - Local authorities in the UK play an active role in ensuring the smooth design and implementation of sustainable transport policy. This paper summarises the findings of a questionnaire survey carried out in 16 local transport authorities, covering the organisational, technical and external challenges faced in the delivery of local transport strategies and schemes. It prioritises the key barriers in the use of decision support tools (i.e. indicators, option generation tools, appraisal techniques, and modelling) and discusses some of the funding challenges which affect the delivery of transport strategies and schemes. The outputs of this research will directly influence the development, practice and use of tools aimed at overcoming these barriers in selected urban transport authorities. This will also strengthen the research evidence base for the implementation of transport policy at a local level in the UK.

    Hull A D (2005) Integrated Transport Planning in the UK: From concept to reality Journal of Transport Geography, 13, pp. 318-328

    Abstract - This paper explores the need for new planning authority practices and structures that can accommodate new policy demands, synergies and approaches to urban management in the UK. Initially it considers recent UK government ideas on the integration of transport and land use planning, exploring how the concept has been located carefully in relation to both established and emerging debates about, for example, sustainability, mobility and structures of governance. The paper then moves on to consider the relationship between these concepts in EU transport discourse taking an example from Sweden of what an integrated urban transport policy might look like on the ground. The final section develops a model of integration and applies this analytic construct to assess integration practices and outcomes of urban mobility management at the local authority level in England. The research uncovers implementation failures including duplication of procedures, failures in communication and the lack of clear and resourced responsibilities.

    Hull A D and Tricker R (2005) Sustainable Urban Environments: Assessing the Barriers to Sustainable Transport Solutions paper presented to the EPSRC Research Fellows Conference, Sustainable Urban Environments: Vision into Action, Birmingham, UK 28 Feb- 2 March 2005

    Hull A D (2005) Sustainable Transport Solutions: Understanding the local level barriers to integration paper presented to the AESOP conference, 13-17 July 2005, Vienna, Austria

    Hull A D (2006) Sustainable transport logics and the disconnection with action: a case study from England keynote paper to the Transport Planning a design challenge conference, AMIDSt, Amsterdam, 14-16 June 2006

    Hull A D (2006) Transport Demand Management: The Challenges for Transport Planners, Land Use Planners, Environmental Health and Public Health Professionals paper presented to the World Planning Schools Congress, 11-16 July 2006, Mexico City

    Hull A D (2006) European transport research agendas paper presented to the World Planning Schools Congress, 11-16 July 2006, Mexico City

    Hull A D (2006) Sustainable transport policy measures and actions: lessons from England paper given to Towards Sustainable Transport Infrastructures: potential policy measures and actions in Europe FORESCENE EUFP6 workshop 26-27 October, Budapest

    Hull A D (2007) Collaborative governance at the city level: Fostering partnerships for new and enhanced bus services presented to the Planning Academics conference, April 2007, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh

    Hull A D (2007) The risks involved in changing the way we do things: working with partners to improve bus services in the UK paper presented to AESOP Naples conference, 11-16 July 2007

    Hull A D (2007) Transport Policy and Research Group: policy and achievements paper presented to the AESOP Naples conference July 2007

    Hull A D (2007) Bus service quality in the UK: Public-private sector partnerships to increase patronage paper presented to European Transport Conference, Leiden, Netherlands, October 2007

    Hull A D (2008) Policy integration: what will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities? Transport Policy 15 pp 94-103

    Hull A D (2009) Implementing innovatory transport measures: what local authorities in the UK say about their problems and requirements European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project B - Option Generation

    May A D, Jopson A J, Gawthorpe S, Kelly C, Cook A and Tanner G (2007) Option generation tools for sustainable urban transport strategies Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - While techniques for identifying urban transport problems, predicting the effects of possible solutions and appraising their performance are well developed, there is a significant gap in the decision-making chain relating to the generation of those possible solutions. A literature review has identified a number of option generation methods in other sectors which are of potential application to transport. It categorises them into "inside the box" methods which are principally quantitative, and draw on a pre-existing list of solutions, and "outside the box" methods which are more qualitative, but potentially better able to generate wholly novel solutions. It also distinguishes between applications at the levels of formulation of an overall strategy and of detailed design of a particular scheme. An "inside the box" method for strategy option generation is being developed building on the capabilities of an existing web-based knowledgebase, KonSULT. The design principles are described and potential further developments using graphical user interfaces outlined.

    Jones P and Thoreau R (2007) Involving the public in redesigning urban street layouts in the UK Conference Paper at the Urban Streets Symposium, TRB, Seattle, June

    Abstract - There has been growing interest in the UK in redesigning main urban streets, in order to meet new policy objectives relating to efficiency and sustainability. Traditionally, engineers design their preferred scheme, and then seek public approval through a 'consultation' exercise. In areas of intense street activity this can result in strong local opposition, sometimes resulting in proposals being abandoned.

    The paper describes an interactive street design exercise which was developed to deal with these more contentious situations by directly involving local stakeholders in developing design options. The exercise involves a combination of physical and computer-based design aids and has three stages.

    First, participants are given a briefing about the area, the current conditions, and any minimum design requirements (e.g. associated with local policy objectives), and discuss how they would like to see the area improved. Next participants divide into smaller groups, where they are provided with a large scale plan of the street, at 1:250, and a series of acetates and blocks depicting different features (e.g. parking bays, bus lanes, seating) to scale. Each group is asked to develop street layouts that they feel meet both the minimum requirements and their aspirations for the area.

    Finally, each design option is entered into a GIS-based computer program that displays the street layouts, and is presented on a large screen for collective discussion. The outcome is either a preferred option, or a small number of options, that can be further developed by the engineers and then put forward for formal public consultation.

    Jones P (2008) Identifying accessibility problems and appropriate solutions for socially disadvantaged groups Proc European Transport Conference

    Kelly, C E, May A D and Jopson A F (2008) The development of an option generation tool to identify potential transport policy packages Transport Policy, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 361-371

    Jones P, May A D and Cinderby S (2009) Innovative approaches to option generation European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project C - Indicators

    Marsden G, Kelly C and Snell C (2006) Selecting indicators for strategic performance management Transportation Research Record, 1956, 21-30[1]

    Abstract - There is a growing emphasis on the use of indicators for performance measurement and management in the transport sector. In the UK all local authorities are now required to set out five year programmes with commitments on progress on a range of mandatory and voluntary indicators linked to a series of key policy outcomes. Increasingly the financial settlements that they receive from central government will be related to their performance against these targets.

    Different types of information are needed to fulfil different roles in the decisionmaking process. Research in the UK has indicated that there are too many indicators and yet too little clarity about what is being collected and reported on, at what level and why. This paper reports on a study examining the use of indicators in 16 local and regional authorities in the UK. Results from a questionnaire and a series of follow-up interviews are combined with the findings of a desk-top review of performance management in the public sector to propose a more logical and connected process for developing a suite of indicators that both supports strategy development and monitoring.

    The results suggest that the current indicator sets are not broad enough to ensure that the strategies proposed are consistent with sustainable transport goals. The lack of a comprehensive framework also increases the risk of negative impacts from monitoring programmes such as measure fixation and myopia. The more comprehensive approach proposed seeks to bring together the aspirations of strategy with the realities of measurement.

    Marsden, G, Kelly C and Snell C (2006) Selecting Indicators for Strategic Performance Management Proc. 85th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington D.C., 22-26 Jan

    Abstract - As above

    Marsden G and Kelly C (2005) Do we count what really counts? Proc. Transport Practitioners Annual Meeting, Aston, 5-6 July

    Abstract - This paper reports on the performance measurement and management processes that have been brought forward for the LTP2 submissions. Far greater emphasis is now being put on the measurement of key outcomes across a range of aspects of quality of life that transport affects (e.g. improved health) as well as those of more obvious relevance (e.g. congestion and accidents). Through desk-top research, a questionnaire and in-depth interviews it is clear that considerable uncertainty exists within the transport planning profession about how to measure these wider quality of life outcomes. As one element of the performance assessment for LTP2, and subsequent financial reward, is progress against targets it seems likely that authorities will avoid bringing forward new and untested indicators that attempt to capture these impacts. This could potentially distort the priorities of the plans, perpetuating the focus on those transport measures that we are comfortable counting. The paper proposes a methodology and provides supporting information to ensure that a suite of indicators that is reflective of the full range of outcomes can be selected and justified. This is a necessary short-term step whilst research attempts to identify the links between transport interventions and wider quality of life outcomes. Only when this has been established will it become clear which outcomes should be measured and over what time periods.

    Marsden G (2009) The role of information exchange and performance management in cross-sectoral policy making: lessons from the UK Proc 88th Transportation Research Board Conference, Washington DC

    Marsden G and Snell C (2009) The role of indicators, targets and monitoring in decision-support for transport European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project D - Organisational Effectiveness

    Forrester, J and Snell, C (2006) Talking round in circles… or a shift towards evidence-informed policy? Participatory Approaches in Science & Technology (PATH) Conference Proceedings, Edinburgh, Scotland: pp 63-65.

    Abstract - Recent research indicates that much upland ecology experimentation carried out by academic researchers has little effect on policy. Further research indicates that there are particular problems in getting evidence-based data into policy in the area of urban transport. There is an urgent need for high quality, reliable and socially-robust data, yet generation of policy options is still largely an ad hoc affair. This poster reports on recent attempts to revisit the relationship between science and the public, and science and policy in order to bring the spheres together to form a science/public/policy relationship to ensure policy relevance and scientific excellence.

    Processes and outcomes are compared from recently completed projects in upland ecology and land use, and from ongoing projects on diffuse pollutants and urban transport. Although the settings are different, the importance of an evidence-based approach is comparable. The poster examines the location and role of expert and stakeholder participation in policymaking and management strategies in areas where science has not - and has - a traditionally perceived key role and comments upon recent successes in moving towards socially inclusive, scientifically rigorous policy making.

    Forrester J (2009) The role of partnerships and communication in developing successful sustainable transport policies European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project E - Funding

    Brannigan, C and Paulley, N (2007) Funding for Local Authority Transport and Land Use Schemes in the UK Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - This paper focuses on the research activities, findings and planned products of one of the UK EPSRC-funded DISTILLATE (Design and Implementation Support Tools for Integrated Local Land use, Transport and the Environment) projects on the funding of transport and land use schemes. Research activities have included a literature review, dialogue with local authority case studies and a funding workshop. Barriers to funding have been identified as including lack of revenue funding, difficulties in obtaining funding for 'soft' schemes, the formation of partnerships and timing-related issues. The proposed key outputs of the project as a result are discussed, including a 'funding toolkit' for local authorities, and guidance for funding bodies regarding the barriers faced.

    Binsted A and Brannigan C (2008) Local Transport Funding: an Assessment of the Implications of Funding Restraints. Guidance Document TRL Published Report PPR 328

    Binsted A and Brannigan C (2008) Local Transport Funding: Guidance for Funders of Transport Schemes TRL Published Report PPR 327

    Brannigan C, Binsted A and Paulley N (2008) Improved Mechanisms for Funding of Local Transport: DISTILLATE Funding Project Research Report TRL Published Project Report PRR 334

    Binsted A and Brannigan C (2008) Local Transport Funding Toolkit for Local Authorities TRL Published Project Report PPR 326

    Brannigan, C and Paulley, N (2008) Funding for Local Authority Transport and Land Use Schemes in the UK Transport Policy, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 379-386

    Binsted A and Paulley N (2009) Overcoming financial barriers European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Project F - Modelling

    Pfaffenbichler P, Emberger G and Shepherd S P (2008) The integrated dynamic land use and transport model MARS Networks and Spatial Economics, Vol 8 (2-3) pp183-200

    Abstract - Cities worldwide face problems like congestion or outward migration of businesses. The involved transport and land use interactions require innovative tools. The dynamic Land Use and Transport Interaction model MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator) is part of a structured decision making process. Cities are seen as self organizing systems. MARS uses Causal Loop Diagrams from Systems Dynamics to explain cause and effect relations. MARS has been benchmarked against other published models. A user friendly interface has been developed to support decision makers. Its usefulness was tested through workshops in Asia. This paper describes the basis, capabilities and uses of MARS.

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Emberger G, Ibesich N and Pfaffenbichler P (2006) Can decision making processes benefit from a user friendly land use and transport interaction model? Paper presented to 8th International Conference on Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning 4-7 July 2006 - The Netherlands

    Abstract - Urban regions today face serious challenges caused by past and ongoing transport and land use developments. To deal with these tasks decision makers need knowledge about which strategies contribute to goals such as the reduction of road congestion, increase quality of life, or how to ensure future economic prosperity. Transport and land use are strongly interrelated and play a key role. Unfortunately decision making processes concerning land use development become more and more complex because of the increasing number of involved stakeholders and long term feedback loops existing between the land use and the transport system. To reduce the risk of inappropriate decisions the use of state of the art decision support tools is essential. One of these tools is MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator).

    The paper presented here focuses therefore on two main issues:

    1) the introduction of the decision support tool MARS and of the cause-effect relations between the land-use and the transport system implemented within MARS and

    2) the design and application of the MARS flight simulator (MARS FS) as a graphical user interface specially designed to support decision makers.

    Shepherd S P, Shires J, Pfaffenbichler P and Emberger G (2007) Improving the capabilities and use of strategic decision making tools Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - Recent research has shown that a substantial proportion of local authorities do not use models for strategy formulation or scheme design and appraisal. Models were perceived to be unable to reflect the range of policy instruments which local authorities now use; and were seen as too complex for local authority staff and stakeholders to use themselves. To overcome these issues the MARS model has been enhanced to provide a transparent and easy to use tool with a flight simulator front-end. This paper describes the model along with improvements to the representation of public transport by inclusion of quality and crowding factors and the incorporation of urban heavy rail.

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Liu R and Sinha S (2007) Modelling Urban Bus Service and Passenger Reliability Paper presented to INSTR2007 - The Third International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability, 19-20 July, The Netherlands

    Abstract - Reliability of public transport systems has been considered critically important by public transport users, operators and the government. Lack of reliability in public transport results in uncertainty and delays aggravating anxiety and discomfort for the passengers and increases costs due to lost mileage and lower fleet utilisation for the operators. The government emphasises a reliable bus-service in order to ensure its competitiveness to car use such that it results in modal shift. Though reliability is of significance to a range of actors such as the bus operators and the passengers, its interpretations vary across different groups. For example, quality of service identified by the demand-oriented indicators, the travellers, is systematically different from what the supply-based quality indicators show. Reliability, as a measure of quality of service, is related to the operational characteristics of the public transport system. Passenger’s wait time, on the other hand, is much more sensitive to schedule reliability than to service frequency.

    This paper investigates some of the measures used to assess reliability of an urban bus network using a dynamic microsimulation model framework. The framework incorporates models of bus operation, passenger arrival and boarding for buses within a network model of general traffic. It therefore allows explicit modelling of the interactions among cars, buses and passengers and of their effect on bus reliability. The model framework is applied to a case study based on a bus route in the city of York. Empirical analysis of the test route was carried out to understand the background of reliability issues and to establish a sound base scenario of the network. The simulation model is used to help understand the causes and process of occurrence of unreliability and to study the impacts of possible scenarios such as increased congestion, rise in passenger demand, and reduction in ‘per passenger boarding time’ on the reliability of the test-route. The study measures reliability in terms of travel time, headways and excess passenger wait time, and sheds light on factors affecting them.

    The results of the study reveal that excess passenger wait time is strongly correlated with the variation of headways and an increase in passenger demand intensifies the ‘bunching and spreading out’ of buses. With increasing congestion and passenger demand, reliability is reduced. Reduction in per passenger boarding time proves to be an effective measure in improving reliability.

    Beyond these specific case study results, the modelling framework developed may serve as a useful tool to assess reliability levels for a future year and to evaluate proposed strategies to improve reliability before implementation. Such a modelling framework, if extended to cover larger bus networks can serve as an important decision-making tool in the hands of the government and bus operators for offering more reliable bus services to the public.

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Maruyama T and Sumalee A (2007) Efficiency and Equity Comparison of Cordon and Area based Road Pricing Schemes Using a Trip-chain Equilibrium Model Transportation Research Part A, 41(7)

    Abstract - This paper compares performances of cordon- and area-road pricing regimes on their social welfare benefit and equity impact. The key difference between the two systems is that the cordon charges travellers per crossing whereas the area scheme charges the travellers for an entry permit (e.g. per day). For the area licensing scheme, travellers may decide to pay or not to pay the toll depending on the proportion between their travel costs for the whole trip-chains during a valid period of the area license and the toll level. A static trip-chain equilibrium based model is adopted in the paper to provide a better evaluation of the area-based tolls on trip-chain demands. The paper proposes a modified Gini coefficient taking in account assumptions of revenue re-distribution to measure the spatial equity impact. The model is tested with the case study of the Utsunomiya city in Japan. The results demonstrate a higher level of optimal tolls and social welfare benefits of the area-based schemes compared to those of the cordon-based schemes. Different sizes of the charging boundary have significant influences on the scheme benefits. The tests also show an interesting result on the non-effect of the boundary design (for both charging types) on their equity impacts. However, when comparing between charging regimes it is clear that the area schemes generate more inequitable results.

    Shepherd S P and Koh A (2007) Designing road pricing cordons Paper presented at UTSG

    Abstract - Despite over 40 years’ research into congestion charging cordons around Europe and Asia, there is little technical advice on where best to place charging boundaries. Most designs are based on a mix of professional and political judgment, with little consideration of the effectiveness of alternative locations. This paper describes two approaches for designing cordons. The first method is a genetic algorithm (GA) based approach. On an application to Edinburgh, this approach resulted in larger benefits over judgemental designs. While this approach is promising, complexities can potentially increase with the size of the network. The alternative approach lies in the middle ground between judgement and the optimal design approach of GA. It was developed from an observation during our earlier study that charges on only a few of the highest marginal cost links could result in a high proportion of the system optimum or first best benefits achievable with charges on all links. Often a cordon cannot be formed from these “high cost” links but the flows which use these links can be traced through the network using a “select link analysis”. This information can be used to design a closed cordon which charges a high proportion of these flows. This paper will demonstrate this approach for networks of Edinburgh and Cambridge and discuss the implications of moving from the buffer to simulation mode within the SATURN modelling package.

    Shepherd S P, May A D and Koh A (2007) How to design effective road pricing cordons Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - This paper describes three approaches to cordon location design, a judgemental approach, an optimisation approach based on Genetic Algorithms and a short-cut approach which lies between the two. The GA optimal single cordon generated benefits 80% higher than the best judgmental cordon for a simplified network of Edinburgh. The short cut approach was developed from an observation that charging on only a few of the highest marginal cost links could result in a high proportion of the system optimum or first best benefits. Initial results for Edinburgh and York have shown that the approach can double benefits compared to a judgemental cordon and more impressively achieve 93% of the GA optimal cordon benefits with only a few model runs in the case of Edinburgh.

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Shepherd S P, May A D and Koh A (2008) How to design effective road pricing cordons Proc. ICE Transport Vol 161 TR3 pp155-165

    May A D, Shepherd S P, Koh A and Sumalee A (2008) Design tools for road pricing cordons In: Road congestion pricing: Lessons from Europe and the implications for the United States (eds Richardson and Chang) Edward Elgar

    Balijepalli N C, Shepherd S P and May A D (2008) Modelling the Choice of Car Parks in Urban Areas and Managing the Demand for Parking Paper presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 13th-17th January

    Abstract - Car parks are an essential piece of infrastructure associated with the road networks, yet commonly available traffic assignment models do not to explicitly integrate them into the modelling process. This research attempts to integrate the choice of car parks in urban areas into the travellers’ route choice and incorporates both the route and car park choice in a joint modelling framework of traffic assignment based on equilibrium approach. This paper illustrates the implementation of the model in a commonly used standard suite of traffic assignment software. The proposed method considers multiple user classes - commuter and non-commuter flows, and involves modelling the demand for short stay and long stay car parks over multiple departure periods. A special search time delay function has been developed to represent the disutility in searching for a place in a car park, which is integrated further into the function of generalised cost of travel. This technique has been successfully applied to study the choice of car parks in the case of a simple hypothetical network. Another larger numerical example illustrates the case of managing the demand between two car parks in Leeds, England.

    Full paper available through White Rose Research Online - a shared, open access repository: Link to entry

    Balijepalli N C, Shepherd S P and Kant P (2009) Integrating car park location choice with equilibrium assignment paper presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.

    Shepherd S , Koh A, Balipalli C, Liu R, Shires J, Pfaffenbichler P, Emberger G and Ash A (2009) Overcoming barriers to model use European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

    Ash A (2009) Mode chain modelling in TRL's Strategic Transport Model TRL Published Project Report (forthcoming)

    Ash A (2009) Design of a scenario interpreter for TRL's Strategic Transport Model TRL Published Project Report (forthcoming)

    Project G - Appraisal

    Jopson, A J, Page M, Menaz B (2007) Appraisal and Decision Making for Small Sustainable Urban Transport Measures Paper presented at the 11th World Conference of Transport Research, University of Berkeley, California, 24-28th June

    Abstract - Appraisal and Decision Making for Small Sustainable Urban Transport Measures: Transport project appraisal is designed to provide an assessment of whether a particular option is worth pursuing, usually based on a cost-benefit analysis. However, research for the DISTILLATE project has identified problems with small project appraisal. This has received attention in the literature as researchers have sought to establish whether cost-benefit analysis can be used with walking, cycling and personalised journey planning projects. However, many studies use a relatively narrow range of criteria within their cost-benefit analysis, but it is likely that including the full range specified by UK appraisal procedures would make the time, cost and effort of the appraisal disproportionate to the project being considered. Consequently, an alternative multi-criteria analysis approach is being developed by the DISTILLATE project.

    Page M, Kelly C, May A D, Jones P and Forrester J (2009) Enhancing appraisal methods to support sustainable transport and land use policies European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (under review)

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